Botany 1st Year-2077(Old Questions)

Here, you can find old question of Bachelor in Science(BSc. I Year) of botany 2077. Tribhuvan University

Botany  1st Year-2077(Old Questions)

Tribhuvan University


Bachelor Level 4 Yrs. Prog. / 1st Year/Science & Tech.

Full Marks:100

Botany- Bot 101  

Time: 3 hrs.

Candidates are required to give their answers in their own words as far as practicable.

The figures in the margin indicate full marks.

New Course 

Attempt ALL questions.

GROUP "A" (4x10=40)

  1. What do you mean by sac fungi (ascomycetes)? Give an account of live cycle of any one sac fungus you are familiar with.
    What do you mean by club fungi (basidiomycetes)? Describe the life cycle of any one club fungus you are familiar with.
  2. Describe the life cycle of Chara. 
  3. Describe the life cycle of Setiaginela
  4. Define succession. Describe the process of succession that starts on hill slopes after landslide.
    Define vegetation. Describe the different types of vegetation found in Nepal. 


Write a brief account of (any EIGHT):                                                           (8x5=40)

  1. Give an account of evolution of classification system of living organisms.
  2. How do bacteria bring about genetic recombination despite the lack of sexual reproduction?
  3. Describe sexual reproduction in Vaucheria. 
  4. What do you mean by progressive sterilization of sporogenous tissue in bryophytes? What role does it play in the evolution of sporophytes?
  5. What do you mean by biogeochemical cycle? What is its significance?
  6. How are pteridophytes classified? Write in brief.
  7. Write a note on different types of steles found in lycophytes.
  8. Give an account of distribution of conifers in Nepal. 
  9. How are gymnosperms useful to us? Describe. 
  10. Give a brief account of evolution of the on earth. 


Write short notes on (any EIGHT):  (8x2.5=20)

  1. How does alternation of generations take place in algae? 
  2. Write a brief note on role of lichens in biomonitoring.
  3. What are the similarities between bryophytes and pteridophytes?
  4. What is the significance of heterospory in the evolution of land plants?
  5. Write a note on megasporophylls of Cycas.
  6. Draw a labelled diagram, of internal structure of Pinus leaf.
  7. What do you mean by petrification?
  8. Write a brief note on ozone depletion.
  9. Given an account of characteristic features of bryophytes. 
  10. Differentiate between commensalism and symbiosis with suitable example. 


“Old Course "

Attempt ALL questions. 

GROUP "A" (4x10=40)

  1. Write an illustrated account of the modes of reproduction in algae.
    Discuss the characteristic features of Vaucheria. Describe its sexual reproduction. 
  2. Give an account of the habitat, morphology and reproduction in Peziza. 
  3. Write a detail account of different types of gametophytes found in Lycopodium. 
  4. Give salient features of Ranunculaceae along with floral diagram, floral formula and economic importance. 
    Give a concise account of the classification system proposed by Adolf Engler and Karl Prantl.


Write a brief account of (any EIGHT): - (8x 5=40) 

  1. Bacteria and soil fertility.
  2. Structure of heteromerous lichen thallus. 
  3. Symptom of Early blight of potato’.
  4. Bryophytes are bio-indicators of heavy metal pollution in air.
  5. The structure of sporocarp of Marsilea.
  6. Salient features of Coniferopsida. 
  7. Artificial system of classification. 
  8. Compression and incrustation fossils.
  9. Merits and demerits of Bentham and Hooker's System of classification.
  10. Structure and development of conceptacle in Fucus.


Write short notes on (any EIGHT): (8*2.5=20)

  1. Lichens are bio-indicators.
  2. Anisogamy 
  3. Morphology and anatomy of Rhynia
  4. Heterotrichous Fern
  5. Harmful effects of bacteria.
  6. Structure of sporophyte in Anthoceros.
  7. Structure of strobilus in Equisetum.
  8. Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae 
  9. The characteristics of the nodal anatomy of Ephedra
  10. Importance of herbarium.