Safety and First Aid
"Explore safety tips, first aid techniques for sprains, fractures, electric shocks, and snake bites. Be prepared with a well-stocked first aid box for handling emergencies effectively."
Safety education is the education given to the individuals to make them aware of different types of probable accidents and remain safe from those accidents. Accidents may take place at the places like home, school, playground, street, factories, etc. Therefore, safety education should be given to children to make them aware and safe from different accidents.
Accidents may take place even if we are working carefully. If we cannot provide first aid to the casualties immediately, they may even lose their life. First aid refers to the treatment given to the injured person on the spot utilizing the locally available resources in order to improve the overall health condition of the victim and prevent from further injury, lessen the pain, console and save the victim from probable disability or death.
First Aid Box
A first aid box, also known as a first aid kit, is a collection of medical supplies and equipment that is used to provide initial care for injuries or illnesses. It is typically kept in homes, workplaces, schools, vehicles, and other locations where there is a potential for accidents or medical emergencies. Having a well-stocked and properly maintained first aid box is important to ensure that immediate care can be administered until professional medical help arrives.
The contents of a first aid box can vary depending on its intended use and the specific needs of the individuals who might use it. However, a basic first aid kit might include the following items:
- Adhesive bandages (various sizes)
- Sterile gauze pads and adhesive tape
- Antiseptic wipes or solution
- Tweezers and scissors
- Disposable gloves
- Pain relievers (such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen)
- Antihistamine tablets (for allergic reactions)
- Instant cold packs
- Burn ointment or gel
- CPR face shield or barrier mask
- Elastic bandages (for wrapping sprains)
- First aid manual or instructions
- Eyewash solution or sterile saline solution
- Tweezers and splinter removal tools
- Cotton balls and swabs
- Hand sanitizer
Safety Measures and First Aid
Sprain is a painful injury in the joints of different parts of the body when the ligaments get over stretched or broken up due to forceful twists and stumbles. Sprain generally occurs at the joints of the elbow, wrist, knee, ankle, fingers, etc. Such joints may swell, ache severely and are difficult to move.
- We should be very careful while doing household activities and playing games.
- We should be careful while walking on the bumpy way and should not jump roughly on such places.
- We should do sufficient warm up before playing games.
- We should not lift heavy loads beyond our physical strength.
- We should follow the rules of the games and be disciplined while playing games.
- First of all, we should keep the injured person in the open place comfortably.
- Sprained parts of the body should not be moved.
- We should use a handkerchief or gauge to tie gently around the injured parts in order to avoid movement.
- The victim should be given plenty of liquids to drink.
- We should console the victim and take him / her to the nearest health center immediately.
Fracture is the state in which a bone is broken into two or more pieces due to various causes such as falling from height, collision, hitting forcefully, etc. The bones may crack, break or intrude. Usually, we see incidents of fracture of limbs in the school or in the playgrounds. The fractured parts may bleed, swell and look ugly as well. It is painful too. It is difficult to move such fractured parts. Generally, fracture can be classified into two types - simple and complex. In simple fracture, a bone is injured and broken into two pieces without any visible wounds in the outer part of the body. Bones fractured in such a way can be quickly and easily treated. In complex type of fracture, the bones are broken into many pieces after an injury. In this type of fracture, the wounds can be seen in the outer part of the body. It is difficult to treat such wounds and it takes longer time to heal.
- We should be very careful while climbing up the walls, roofs, trees, etc.
- We should put a fence/ bar at the stairs and balcony of the houses.
- We should follow traffic rules and regulations while travelling and crossing roads.
- We should instruct to play games only in the presence of an experienced coach.
- We should play games only after sufficient warm up exercises.
- First of all, the injured person should be kept comfortably and should be consoled well.
- We should not let the fractured part of the body move.
- The bleeding in the fractured part must be stopped immediately.
- We should not pull or massage the fractured part of the body.
- We should take the injured person to the nearest health center as quickly as possible.
Electric shock occurs by passage of electric current through our body when we touch the naked electric wire/short circuit at home, school or any other places. The person may die due to the internal effects of the electric shock on the heart even though we do not see any external wounds in the body.
- We should not leave the bare electric wire here and there.
- We should not touch the broken wires and damaged bulbs carelessly.
- Our children should be made aware of the safety measures about the use of electric switches and plugs.
- We should not touch electric appliances with wet hands and bare feet.
- Electric wiring of the houses and the schools should be done only by the skilled/ trained electrician.
- We should have good knowledge of the electric appliances before using them.
- First of all, we should turn off the main switch of the electricity.
- If the victim is still in contact with the bare wire, we should immediately.
- Artificial respiration should be given to the victim if s/he has stopped breathing.
- Plenty of fluids should be given to the victim if s/he is conscious.
- The victim should be taken to the nearest health center as quickly as possible.
It is the state in which individuals become senseless due to the lack of oxygen and nutrients supply in the kidneys, brain, heart as a result of low blood pressure. A person can be faint due to various reasons like extreme pain/ grief, excessive bleeding, terrifying things and events, excessive heat, mental and physical weakness, accidents,infection, etc.
Similarly, poisonous food, drowning, dehydration, electric shock, etc. are other causes of shock.
The symptoms of shocks could be such as dizziness, nausea, excessive thirst, lack of body control,etc. Similarly symptoms like cold and clumsy limbs and nose, fast and unstable pulse, pale face, etc. may be observed during a shock.
- We should prevent excessive bleeding from the wounds or injuries.
- We should avoid excessive physical labour.
- We should drink plenty of water.
- We should handle electrical appliances with care.
- We should stay in an open place where the fresh air can circulate easily.
- The injured person should be kept warm and comfortable loosening the tight clothes.
- A cold water bandage should be put around the face and head of the victim.
- An artificial respiration should be given if the victim is not breathing or is feeling difficulty in breathing.
- The victim should be consoled and given plenty of liquid to drink after he/ she comes to consciousness.
- We should not let the victim stand up and walk immediately after his / her consciousness and he / she should be taken to the nearest health centre as soon as possible.
5. Snake Bite
When a poisonous snake bites us, the poison passes through our body. That poison affects our neurological, respiratory and circulatory system. When the poison enters our body, it circulates to all the parts of our body through the blood vessels. If the victim does not get treatment in time, he/ she may die immediately. Two small scars of teeth or a small wound can be seen at the snake bitten part of the body. Cobra,Krait, Viper, etc. are poisonous snakes. Usually, snakes are seen in the summer season or hot weather. Such types of snakes are found in large numbers in the Terai region of Nepal.
After about thirty minutes of poisonous snake bite, the symptoms like feeling dizziness, blurring speech, severe abdominal ache, diarrhea, etc. can be seen.
Similarly, other symptoms such as swelling of lips and tongue, difficulty in opening eye lid, difficulty in breathing and swallowing, senseless tongue, etc. are observed.
- We should not walk bare foot and tease the snakes.
- We should take a torch while walking in the dark.
- We should keep our surroundings neat and clean filling the ditches and holes.
- We should spray pesticides/ insecticides around our residence.
- We should wash the wound well with soap and water.
- We should not let the affected part of the victim to move in order to prevent the spread of poison in the body.
- We should tie a string above the wound so as not to let the poison spread to other parts of the body but it should be loosened for a while after every fifteen minutes.
- If the victim is conscious, we should give him/ her plenty of liquid to drink.
- We should take the victim to the health center as quickly as possible.